Introducing Etherspot’s Skandha ERC-4337 Bundler Service

Introducing Etherspot’s Skandha ERC-4337 Bundler Service

Written by


June 22, 2023

As Ethereum continues to evolve and scale, the need for innovative solutions to enhance transaction efficiency becomes increasingly important. This is where account abstraction and ERC-4337 bundlers come into play.

What is an ERC-4337 bundler service?

Bundler services act as intermediaries between users and the Ethereum network. In short, a bundler will work with a number of UserOperations (transactions) to ensure they are included on-chain. It is a node (block builder) that bundles multiple usersOps from the Alt-Mempool to create the most beneficial bundle which is signed and transmitted to the network as a single transaction. Note that not all block-builders on the network are required to be bundlers, the bundlers forward the UserOps to the block-builders.

Through the use of the UserOperation function, a bundler collects UserOps transactions and submits them to the network as a single transaction, saving gas fees and reducing blockchain congestion.

Etherspot has built a modular typescript implementation of this called Skandha.

Why Skandha is the top Account Abstraction service on GitHub

Skandha is a modular, developer-friendly Typescript bundler for Ethereum ERC-4337 account abstraction. By leveraging the power of bundler services and adhering to the ERC-4337 standard, the Skandha bundler service unlocks a wide range of benefits for Ethereum and EVM-compatible chain users and developers alike.

Bundlers are important to the entire Ethereum ecosystem for several reasons:

  • Decentralization. Bundlers enable access to smart contract wallets without depending on centralized relayers controlled by a single entity.
  • Save on gas costs. Thanks to bundling multiple transactions into a single one.
  • Censorship-resistance. Anyone can launch a bundler service.

Why choose Skandha?

  • Skandha is the top Account Abstraction service on GitHub with a high rating.
  • Etherspot’s bundler is live on 6 testnets and 11 mainnets (Ethereum, Polygon, Optimism, Arbitrum, Fuse, Mantle, Gnosis, Base, Avalanche, BNB, and Linea). More details are in the docs.
  • Skandha works with Nethermind nodes. This feature allows Skandha to work on networks such as Gnosis and Fuse, which mainly use Nethermind clients.
  • Skandha supports L2 chains.
  • One instance of Skandha can run for multiple networks.
  • Skandha will have p2p capability. This will allow ERC-4337 bundles to work the same way ETH nodes do now and will enable true decentralization.

“We’re researching all the different implementations right now and we understand that nothing in production is ready yet, but so far Skandha seems to be the best fit for us, you guys did a great job :)” — the Fuse Network team.

How to run Skandha Bundler

There are two options to run the Skandha bundler: from a Source code and via a Docker image.

🧑‍💻 Run with one-liner ->


👉 Find all other options and instructions on our GitHub.

In conclusion, the launch of the Skandha bundler service marks a significant milestone in transaction processing optimization for Ethereum. By introducing Account Abstraction and leveraging bundler services, Ethereum users and developers can now enjoy enhanced transaction efficiency, reduced costs, and improved scalability. We look forward to witnessing the transformative impact of the Skandha bundler service and its role in shaping the future of the Ethereum ecosystem.

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